Red Star OS: North Korea, apparently based on Fedora with custom crypto modules.
Red Flag Linux: China, based on Red Hat. (See update below)
Nova: Cuba, state sponsored Linux distribution based on Gentoo.
Some other state sponsored Linux projects around?
Update March 22, 2013
According to ARS Technica China is going to standardize around a highly customized Ubuntu Kylin 13.04
My bet is that it will be “The Great Firewall” friendly.